Interior of the Baroque church of Los Hospitalicos, in Granada, Spain. Elvira street. Interior de la iglesia barroca de los Hospitalicos, en Granada, España. Calle Elvira. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)
This post was inspired by. .
- Current Event: Pope Francis’ having noted that the practice/tradition of having priests practice celibacy as a function of the vocation to the priesthood, may now become allowable. Source: Times of London : Faith 9/12/13
- Personal Conviction: Yashua; his Aramaic name . . . Jesus Christ is due to the Greek language prima lingua of the early Christian community, would have married if the situation of his public ministry had not broken down to the point of the Crucifixion and the prospect of leaving progeny in the embrace of those who had not yet understood his purpose. Source: My Conscience and Principles
- When I looked up "Celibacy begin in Priesthood" I was surprised by 303 Council of Elvira. I was expecting something from the 13th Century.
- Please note that it is the first 23 cannons that are held as contemporaneous with the council. Cannons greater than 23 are believed to have been added later.
- Background: The belief that religious figures should be celibate began long before the birth of Christianity. Ancient Druid priests were thought to have been celibate and Aztec temple priests were expected to remain sexually abstinent. Other pre-Christian sects mandated that the people chosen for their sacrificial offerings must be pure, meaning that they had never engaged in sex.
- Celibacy as an imitation of Yashua/Jesus who lived a chaste life and never married and at one point in the Bible is referred to as a eunuch (Matthew 19:12). Many of his disciples were also chaste and celibate. Paul, in his first letter to the Corinthians, recommends celibacy for women:"To the unmarried and the widows I say that it is well for them to remain single as I do. But if they cannot exercise self-control, they should marry. For it is better to marry than to be aflame with passion." (1 Cor. 7:8-9) But the early Christian church had no hard and fast rule against clergy marrying and having children. Peter, a Galilee fisherman, whom the Catholic Church considers the first Pope, was married. Some Popes were the sons of Popes. – See more at: HNN George Mason University
The place of meeting, Eliberri, rendered as Elvira, was not far from the modern Granada , if not, as A.W. Dale and Edgar Hennecke think, actually identical with it.There the nineteen bishops and twenty-four presbyters, mostly from Hispania Baetica and Carthago Nova , assembled, probably at the instigation of Hosius of Córdoba , but under the presidency of Felix of Accitum (Guadix ) in Baetica, probably by virtue of his being the oldest bishop present, with a view to restoring order and discipline in the church. The canons which were adopted reflect with considerable fullness the internal life and external relations of the Spanish Church of the 4th century. The reputation of this council drew to its canons further canons that came to be associated with the Synod of Elvira.
Victor De Clercq notes "that except for Hosius of Córdoba , we know practically nothing about these men, nor do we know with certainty when and why the council was held, and that the church of Spain is one of the least known in pre-constantinian times".The social environment of Christians in Hispania may be inferred from the canons prohibiting marriage and other intercourse with Jews , pagans and heretics , closing the offices of flamen and duumvir to Christians, forbidding all contact with idolatry  and likewise participation in pagan festivals and public games. The state of morals is mirrored in the canons denouncing prevalent vices. The canons respecting the clergy exhibit the clergy as already a special class with particular privileges, as acting under a more exacting moral standard, with heavier penalties for delinquency. The bishop has acquired control of the sacraments , presbyters and deacons acting only under his orders; the episcopate appears as a unit, bishops being bound to respect one another’s disciplinary decrees.
The canons (which are available in English and Latin online) are almost entirely concerned with the conduct of various elements of the Christian community, and have no theological content as such. Sanctions include long delays before baptism, exclusion from the Eucharist for periods of months or years, or indefinitely, sometimes with an exception for the death-bed, though this is also specifically excluded in some cases. Periods of penance , often for sexual offences, extend to 5 or 10 years: "Canon 5. If a woman beats her servant and causes death within three days, she shall undergo seven years’ penance if the injury was inflicted on purpose and five years’ if it was accidental. She shall not receive communion during this penance unless she becomes ill. If so, she may receive communion."
|Cannon 1||Lapsed Christians were forbidden the holy communion even in articulo mortis, an unusually severe application of Novatianist principles , which had divided the church since the recovery from mid 3rd-century persecutions: compare the severity of Cyprian of Carthage . The subject of this leading canon is a major indication for a date following recent persecution.|
|Cannons 2,3,4,55||many tightly control the reception of former pagan priests into the Christian church and clergy|
|Cannon 5||Long delays before baptism, exclusion from the Eucharist for periods of months or years, or indefinitely, sometimes with an exception for the death-bed, though this is also specifically excluded in some cases. Periods of penance , often for sexual offences, extend to 5 or 10 years: "|
|Cannon 15||No Marriage with pagans|
|Cannon 16||No Marriage with Jews|
|Cannon 26||"the rigorous form of fasting" every Saturday|
|Cannon 33||Enjoining celibacy upon all clerics, married or not, and all who minister at the altar (the most ancient canon of clerical celibacy ).|
|Cannon 36||No pictures in church|
|Cannon 34||"Candles are not to be burned in a cemetery during the day. This practice is related to paganism and is harmful to Christians. Those who do this are to be denied the communion of the church"|
|Cannon 38||Permits lay baptism under certain conditions.|
|Cannon 44||Married former prostitutes are not to suffer delays in baptism on that account|
|Cannon 48||Forbade blessing of Christian Crops by Jews|
|Cannon 50||Forbade sharing meals between Christians and Jews|
|Cannon 53||Forbids one bishop restoring a person excommunicated by another.|
|Cannon 60||Forbad Christian slave-owners from allowing their pagan slaves to keep their personal idols, or "if this is impossible to enforce, they must at least avoid the idols and remain pure. If this does not happen, they are alienated from the church"|
|Cannon 67||"A woman who is baptized or is a catechumen must not associate with hairdressers or men with long hair...".|
|Cannon 78||Threatens Christians who commit adultery with Jews with ostracism|
|Cannon 81||"A woman may not write to other lay Christians without her husband’s consent. A woman may not receive letters of friendship addressed to her only and not to her husband as well."|
All the canons which pertain to Jews served to maintain a separation between the two communities. Canon 15 prohibited marriage with pagans, while canon 16 prohibited marriage of Christians with Jews. Canon 78 threatens Christians who commit adultery with Jews with ostracism . Canon 48 forbade the blessing of Christian crops by Jews, and canon 50 forbade the sharing of meals by Christians and Jews
Among the early canons, which are possibly the only original ones, by the terms of canon 1, lapsed Christians were forbidden the holy communion even in articulo mortis, an unusually severe application of Novatianist principles , which had divided the church since the recovery from mid 3rd-century persecutions: compare the severity of Cyprian of Carthage . The subject of this leading canon is a major indication for a date following recent persecution.
Among the later canons, of especial note are canon 33, enjoining celibacy upon all clerics, married or not, and all who minister at the altar (the most ancient canon of clerical celibacy ). Canon 36 states, "Pictures are not to be placed in churches, so that they do not become objects of worship and adoration.". It allegedly forbids pictures in churches (compare the Iconoclastic Controversy in the East); according to Philip Schaff this canon "has often been quoted by Protestants as an argument against image worship as idolatrous; while Roman Catholic writers explain it either as a prohibition of representations of the deity only, or as a prudential measure against heathen desecration of holy things". Canon 38, permits lay baptism under certain conditions, and canon 53, forbids one bishop restoring a person excommunicated by another.
Other provisions relating to images forbad Christian slave-owners from allowing their pagan slaves to keep their personal idols, or "if this is impossible to enforce, they must at least avoid the idols and remain pure. If this does not happen, they are alienated from the church" (Canon 41). Canon 60 says; "If someone smashes an idol and is then punished by death, he or she may not be placed in the list of martyrs, since such action is not sanctioned by the Scriptures or by the apostles." Canon 34 says "Candles are not to be burned in a cemetery during the day. This practice is related to paganism and is harmful to Christians. Those who do this are to be denied the communion of the church". Other canons imposed "the rigorous form of fasting" every Saturday (Canon 26), forbad the baptism of chariot racers or stage performers (Canon 62), and many tightly control the reception of former pagan priests into the Christian church and clergy (Canons, 2,3,4,55).
Several canons relate only to the behavior of women, such as Canon 67: "A woman who is baptized or is a catechumen must not associate with hairdressers or men with long hair...". Canon 81 reads: "A woman may not write to other lay Christians without her husband’s consent. A woman may not receive letters of friendship addressed to her only and not to her husband as well." However married former prostitutes are not to suffer delays in baptism on that account (Canon 44).
Date of the synod
The solution of the question of the date hinges upon the interpretation of the canons, that is, upon whether they are to be taken as reflecting a recent persecution, or as redacted in a time of peace, that is either after or before the persecution under Diocletian . Thus the earliest investigators, Louis Duchesne  and Victor De Clercq argue for a date between 300 and 303, i.e. before the persecution under Diocletian ; others for a date between 303 and 314, after the persecution, but before the Synod of Arles ; a few others argue for a date between the synod of Arles and the Council of Nicaea , (325). Karl Josef von Hefele and Robert William Dale follow early compilers of the canons Giovanni Domenico Mansi and Jean Hardouin in agreement upon 305 or 306, while Henneckeconcludes that "the whole attitude points to a time of peace, not to one immediately following a persecution; the complete absence of any provisions as to the case of the lapsed is enough to preclude the modern theory as to the date".
The scanty documentation of the Synod of Elvira was first assembled by Ferdinand de Mendoza, De confirmando Concilio IIIiberitano ad Clementem VIII, 1593.
- ^ .Edgar Hennecke , "Elvira, Synod of" in Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge (3rd ed).
- ^ Philip Schaff, History of the Christian Church.
- ^ 
- ^ 
- ^ Eliberri , Elimberri or Ilumberri was an ancient cognate of today BasqueHiriberri or Irunberri that mean ‘new domain’, ‘new town.
- ^ Dale 1882.
- ^ "Elvira, Synod of" in Schaff-Herzog.
- ^ Hennecke noted that Legio (Leon) and Saragoza were represented, but not Tarragona.
- ^ Henry Wace, Dictionary of Christian Biography and Literature sv "Hosius (1)" .
- ^ "Concile ou collection d’Elvire,"Revue d’histoire ecclésiastique 70(1975) pp 361-387
- ^ Problems of the textual transmission of the canons are discussed in Hamilton Hess, The Early Development of Canon Law and the Council of Serdica(Oxford Early Christian Studies, Oxford: 2002) pp 40-42.
- ^ De Clercq, reviewing Samuel Laeuchli, Power and Sexuality: The Emergence of Canon Law at the Synod of Elvira in Vigiliae Christianae 29.1 (March 1975), p. 76.
- ^ Robert Grigg, "Aniconic Worship and the Apologetic Tradition: A Note on Canon 36 of the Council of Elvira"Church History 45.4 (December 1976), pp. 428-433, finds that the hostility toicons , forbidding the introduction of images into the churches is based on Christian apologists ‘ use of pagan sources denouncing the veneration of images, rather than on the prohibition inExodus , which it fails to cite. He instances the contemporaneous apologists Arnobius and Lactantius .
- ^ Fordham, Canon 5
- ^ Charles A. Frazee, "The Origins of Clerical Celibacy in the Western Church" Church History 57Supplement Centennial Issue (1988), pp. 108-126.
- ^http://faculty.cua.edu/pennington/canon%20Law/ElviraCanons.htm. Placuit picturas in ecclesia esse non debere, ne quod colitur et adoratur in parietibus depingatur. The Catholic Encyclopedia reported that "This canon has often been urged against the veneration of images as practised in the Catholic Church. Binterim , De Rossi, and Hefele interpret this prohibition as directed against the use of images in overground churches only, lest the pagans should caricature sacred scenes and ideas; Von Funk , Termel, and Dom Leclerq opine that the council did not pronounce as to the liceity or non-liceity of the use of images, but as an administrative measure simply forbade them, lest new and weak converts from paganism should incur thereby any danger of relapse into idolatry, or be scandalized by certain superstitious excesses in no way approved by the ecclesiastical authority." A possible translation is also: "There shall be no pictures in the church, lest what is worshipped and adored should be depicted on the walls."
- ^ Schaff, History, Vol. II, Ch. 55
- ^ Duchesne, "Le concile d’Elvira et les flamines chrétiennes", Mélanges Renier (Paris) 1887, pp 159-74.
- ^ De Clercq, Ossius of Cordova (!954).
- ^ Hennecke "Elivira, synod of" in New Schaff-Herzog.