Antiquity: Healing : 1895 : Hoʻoponopono

I have found a peaceful dynamic through my encounter with Ho’oponopono.  This post is a journey to share highlights of my journey. You may find something valuable as I have.  When I encounter an error/sin/pain I take responsibility, and ‘clear or clean’ by making an internal affirmation,  ‘I love you, I am sorry, please forgive me, [it is done] Thank You’.  This is realizing any error cleared in their own life can help clear that error for others.

At this the time of this posting, I am wrestling with a goal of Ho’o described as the ‘Zero State’ of ‘No memories. No identity’ by adepts of Ho’o.  Regardless, of my perception of Ho’o, a treasure available.  Carpe Diem. 


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Hoʻoponopono (ho-o-pono-pono) is an ancient Hawaiian practice of reconciliation and forgiveness . Similar forgiveness practices were performed on islands throughout the South Pacific , including Samoa , Tahiti and New Zealand. Traditionally hoʻoponopono is practiced by healing priests or kahuna lapaʻauamong family members of a person who is physically ill. Modern versions are performed within the family by a family elder, or by the individual alone.

Map of Hawaii

   Polynesian Antecedents   Map of Oceania

In many Polynesian cultures , it is believed that a person’s errors (called hara orhala) caused illness . Some believe error angers the gods, others that it attracts malevolent gods, and still others believe the guilt caused by error made one sick."In most cases, however, specific ‘untie-error’ rites could be performed to atone for such errors and thereby diminish one’s accumulation of them."[1]

Among the islands of Vanuatu in the South Pacific , people believe that illness usually is caused by sexual misconduct or anger. "If you are angry for two or three days, sickness will come," said one local man.[2]

The therapy that counters this sickness is confession. The patient, or a family member, may confess. If no one confesses an error, the patient may die. The Vanuatu people believe that secrecy is what gives power to the illness. When the error is confessed, it no longer has power over the person.[3]

Like many other islanders, including Hawaiians, people of Tikopia in the Solomon Islands , and on Rarotonga in the Cook Islands , believe that the sins of the father will fall upon the children. If a child is sick, the parents are suspected of quarreling or misconduct. In addition to sickness, social disorder could cause sterility of land or other disasters.[4] Harmony could be restored only by confession and apology.

In Pukapuka , it was customary to hold sort of a confessional over patients to determine an appropriate course of action in order to heal them.[5]

Similar traditions are found in Samoa ,[6] Tahiti ,[7] and among the Maori of New Zealand .[8][9][10]

Traditional practice : A lei made from the fruit of the hala or pandanus tree. A hala lei was given at the completion of hoʻoponopono in the tradition of kahuna Makaweliweli of Molokaʻi

Overlooking Kalalau Valley from Koke’e State Park, where Nana Veary held retreats to teach hoʻoponopono

"Hoʻoponopono" is defined in the Hawaiian Dictionary[11] as "mental cleansing: family conferences in which relationships were set right through prayer, discussion, confession, repentance, and mutual restitution andforgiveness ." Literally, hoʻo is a particle used to make an actualizing verb from the following noun, as would "to" before a noun in English.Here, it creates a verb from the noun pono , which is defined as

…goodness, uprightness, morality, moral qualities, correct or proper procedure, excellence, well-being, prosperity, welfare, benefit, true condition or nature, duty; moral, fitting, proper, righteous, right, upright, just, virtuous, fair, beneficial, successful, in perfect order, accurate, correct, eased, relieved; should, ought, must, necessary.

Ponopono is defined as "to put to rights; to put in order or shape, correct, revise, adjust, amend, regulate, arrange, rectify, tidy up, make orderly or neat".

Preeminent Hawaiian scholar Mary Kawena Pukui wrote that it was a practice inAncient Hawaii [12] and this is supported by oral histories from contemporary Hawaiian elders.[13] Pukui first recorded her experiences and observations from her childhood (born 1895) in her 1958 book.[14] Author Max Freedom Long , who lived in Hawaiʻi from 1917 to about 1926, documented traditional hoʻoponopono as used by Hawaiian families in his 1936 book.[15]

Although the word hoʻoponopono was not used, early Hawaiian historians documented a belief that illness was caused by breaking kapu , or spiritual laws, and that the illness could not be cured until the sufferer atoned for this transgression, often with the assistance of a praying priest (kahuna pule) or healing priest (kahuna lapaʻau). Forgiveness was sought from the gods[16][17] or from the person with whom there was a dispute.[18]

Pukui described it as a practice of extended family members meeting to "make right" broken family relations. Some families met daily or weekly, to prevent problems from erupting.[19] Others met when a person became ill, believing that illness was caused by the stress of anger, guilt, recriminations and lack of forgiveness.[20] Kupuna Nana Veary wrote that when any of the children in her family fell ill, her grandmother would ask the parents, "What have you done?" They believed that healing could come only with complete forgiveness of the whole family.[21]


Hoʻoponopono corrects, restores and maintains good relationships among family members and with their gods or God by getting to the causes and sources of trouble. Usually the most senior member of the family conducts it. He or she gathers the family together. If the family is unable to work through a problem, they turn to a respected outsider.

The process begins with prayer. A statement of the problem is made, and the transgression discussed. Family members are expected to work problems through and cooperate, not "hold fast to the fault". One or more periods of silence may be taken for reflection on the entanglement of emotions and injuries. Everyone’s feelings are acknowledged. Then confession, repentance and forgiveness take place. Everyone releases (kala) each other, letting go. They cut off the past (ʻoki), and together they close the event with a ceremonial feast, called pani, which often included eating limu kala or kala seaweed, symbolic of the release.[22]

In a form used by the family of kahuna Makaweliweli of the island of Molokaʻi, the completion of hoʻoponopono is represented by giving the person forgiven alei made from the fruit of the hala tree.[23]

Modern uses

"Aunty" Malia Craver, who worked with the Queen Liliʻuokalani Children’s Centers (QLCC) for more than 30 years, taught courses in traditional hoʻoponopono. On August 30, 2000, she spoke about it to the United Nations .[24]

Traditional applications

In the late 20th century, courts in Hawaiʻi began to order juvenile and adult offenders to work with an elder who would conduct hoʻoponopono for their families, as a form of alternative dispute resolution . The hoʻoponopono is conducted in the traditional way, without court interference, with a practitioner picked by the family from a list of court-approved providers.[25]

Some native practitioners provide hoʻoponopono to clients who otherwise might seek family counseling.[26]

Freedom from Karma

The site of the partially restored remains of the village of Koaiʻe in the Lapakahi State Historical Park of the island of Hawaii, North Kohala district. Beginning in the early 20th century, this village has been a center for lapaʻau

In 1976 Morrnah Simeona , regarded as a healing priest or kahuna lapaʻau, adapted the traditional hoʻoponopono of family mutual forgiveness to the social realities of the modern day. For this she extended it both to a general problem solving process outside the family and to a psycho-spiritual self-help rather than group process.

Simeona’s version is influenced by her Christian (Protestant and Catholic) education and her philosophical studies about India, China and Edgar Cayce . Like Hawaiian tradition she emphasizes prayer, confession, repentance, and mutual restitution and forgiveness. Unlike Hawaiian tradition, she describes problems only as the effects of negative Karma , saying that "you have to experience by yourself what you have done to others." But that you are the creator of your life circumstances was common knowledge for the people of old as "things we had brought with us from other lifetimes."[27] Any wrongdoing is memorized within oneself and mirrored in every entity and object which was present when the cause happened. As the Law of Cause and Effect predominates in all of life and lifetimes, the purpose of her version is mainly "to release unhappy, negative experiences in past Reincarnations , and to resolve and remove traumas from the ‘memory banks’."[28] Karmic bondages hinder the evolution of mind, so that "(karmic) cleansing is a requisite for the expansion of awareness".[29] Using her 14-step-process would dissolve those bondages.[30]She did not use mantras or conditioning exercises.

Her teachings include: there is a Divine Creator who takes care of altruistic pleas of Men; "when the phrase ‘And it is done’ is used after a prayer, it means Man’s work ends and God’s begins."[31] "Self-Identity" signifies, e.g. during the hoʻoponopono, that the three selves or aspects of consciousness are balanced and connected with the Divine Creator.[32] Different from egoistic prayers, "altruistic prayers like hoʻoponopono, where you also pray for the release of other entities and objects, reach the Divine plane or Cosmos because of their high vibrations.From that plane the Divine energy or "mana" would come,"[33] which would transform the painful part of the memory of the wrong actions in all participants to "Pure Light", on whatever plane they are existing; "all are set free".[34]Through this transmutation in the mind the problems will lose their energy for physical effects, and healing or balancing is begun. In this sense, Simeona’s mana is not the same as the traditional Polynesian understanding of Mana .

Pacifica Seminars founded by Morrnah Simeona started the first Ho’oponopono seminars in Germany . Seminars are still held on a regular basis in Germany, Poland, France, and Denmark.[35][36][37]

State of Zero

After Simeona’s passing in 1992, her former student and administrator Ihaleakala Hew Len, co-authored a book with Joe Vitale called Zero Limits[38] referring to Simeona’s hoʻoponopono teachings. Len makes no claim to be a kahuna. In contrast to Simeona’s teachings, the book brings the new idea that the main objective of hoʻoponopono is getting to "the state of Zero, where we would have zero limits. No memories. No identity."[39] To reach this state, which Len called ‘Self-I-Dentity’, one has to repeat constantly the mantra , "I love you. I’m sorry. Please forgive me. Thank you."[40] It is based on Len’s idea of 100% responsibility,[41] taking responsibility for everyone’s actions, not only for one’s own. If one would take complete responsibility for one’s life, then everything one sees, hears, tastes, touches, or in any way experiences would be one’s responsibility because it is in one’s life.[42] The problem would not be with our external reality, it would be with ourselves. To change our reality, we would have to change ourselves. Total Responsibility, according to Hew Len, advocates that everything exists as a projection from inside the human being.[43] As such, it is similar to the philosophy of solipsism , but differs in that it does not deny the reality of the consciousness of others. Instead, it views all consciousness as part of the whole, so using parts of the idea of holism


  1. Oliver, p. 157
  2. Parsons, p. 55
  3. Parsons, p. 61
  4. Parsons, p. 70
  5. Parsons, p. 151
  6. Parsons, p. 12
  7. Parsons, p. 159
  8. Parsons, p. 217
  9. Buck, pp. 405–6
  10. Handy, p. 242
  11. Pukui, Elbert
  12. Pukui, Haertig, Lee, p. 61-62, 67
  13. Chai, p.47-50
  14. Pukui, Handy, p. 184-5
  15. Long (1936) p. 246-248; Long (1948), pp. 250–2, 279, 303.Though not everything in these books is traditional Hawaiian, these particular sections are authentic descriptions of hoʻoponopono.
  16. Kamakau, p. 95
  17. Malo, p. 75 (English)
  18. Titcomb
  19. Chai, pp. 52–54
  20. Pukui, Haertig, Lee, p. 60
  21. Veary, p. 34
  22. Pukui, Haertig, Lee p. 60-80
  23. Lee, p. 49
  25. Steuterman, p. 34
  26. Shook
  27. Pali Jae Lee, Koko Willis, p.46
  28. Simeona, p. 36
  29. Simeona, p. 77
  30. Simeona, pp. 45–61
  31. Simeona, p. 51
  32. Simeona, p. 31
  33. Simeona, p. 25
  34. Simeona, p. 17
  35. Simeona, Morrnah, Selbst-Identität durch Hoʻoponopono, p. 128, Pacifica Seminars (1990)
  37. Simeona, Morrnah, L’Identité de Soi-Même par Hoʻoponopono, 128 pg, Pacifica Seminars (1990)
  38. Vitale, Len
  39. Vitale, Len, p. 31
  40. Vitale, Len, p. 32
  41. Vitale, Len, p. 41
  42. Vitale, Len, p. 22
  43. Vitale, Len, p. 24


  • Buck, Peter Te Rangi Hiroa, The Coming of the Maori, Wellington, Whitcombe and Tombs (1950)
  • Chai, Makana Risser, Na Moʻolelo Lomilomi: The Traditions of Hawaiian Massage & Healing, Bishop Museum Press (2005) ISBN 978-1-58178-046-8
  • Handy, E.S.Craighill Polynesian Religion, Kraus Reprint & Periodicals (1971)
  • Kamakau, Samuel, Ka Poʻe Kahiko (The People of Old), Bishop Museum Press (1992)
  • Lee, Pali Jae, Ho’opono, I M Publishing (2008)
  • Lee, Pali Jae, Koko Willis, Tales from the Night Rainbow, Night Rainbow Publishing Co. (1990) ISBN 0-9628030-0-6
  • Long, Max Freedom, Recovering the Ancient Magic, (1936) (reprinted Huna Press, 1978)
  • Long, Max Freedom, The Secret Science Behind Miracles, (1948) (reprinted De Vorss and Co., 1983)
  • Malo, Davida, (Chun, trans) Ka Moʻolelo Hawaii: Hawaiian Traditions, First Peoples Productions
  • Oliver, Douglas, Polynesia in Early Historic Times, Bess Press (2002) ISBN 978-1-57306-125-4
  • Parsons, Claire F., Healing Practices in the South Pacific, Institute for Polynesian Studies (1995) ISBN 978-0-939154-56-2
  • Pukui, Mary Kawena and Elbert, Samuel H., University of Hawaii (1986) ISBN 978-0-8248-0703-0
  • Pukui, Mary Kawena, Haertig, E.W. and Lee, Catherine, Nana i ke Kumu: Look to the Source, Vol 1, Hui Hanai (1983) ISBN 978-0-916630-13-3
  • Pukui, Mary Kawena, E.S. Craighill Handy, The Polynesian Family System in Kaʻu, Hawaii, 1958, Mutual Pub Co, (Hawaii 2006) ISBN 978-1-56647-812-0
  • Shook, Victoria E. Hoʻoponopono: Contemporary Uses of a Hawaiian Problem Solving Process, University of Hawaii Press (1986) ISBN 978-0-8248-1047-4
  • Simeona, Morrnah, Self-Identity through Hoʻoponopono, Basic 1, Pacifica Seminars (1990)
  • Steuterman, Kim Rogers, "Sacred Harmony", Hawaii Magazine (Jan/Feb 2004)
  • Titcomb (1948) "Kava in Hawaii", Journal of Polynesian Society, 57:105–171, 144
  • Veary, Nana, Change We Must: My Spiritual Journey, Institute of Zen Studies, Honolulu (1989) ISBN 978-1-877982-07-1
  • Vitale, Joe, Hew Len Ph.D., Zero Limits, Wiley (2007)
Enhanced by Zemanta
Posted in Belief, civilization, Faith, Healing, Restoration | Tagged , , , | Leave a comment

Last Days : 2003 : Nibriu Collision – Polar Shift

The inner solar system superimposed behind the...

The inner solar system superimposed behind the orbits of the planet Epsilon Reticuli b (and several others). (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

2003 May and ongoing refinements to predictions.

Messenger : Nancy Lieder

Lieder originally predicted the date for the Nibiru collision as May 2003. According to her website: Zeta Talk, aliens in the Zeta Reticuli star system told her through messages via a brain implant of a planet which would enter our solar system and cause a pole shift on earth that would destroy most of humanity.

ZetaTalk leads you through the vast amount of information being relayed by the Zetas in answer to questions posed to their emissary, Nancy. The ZetaTalk answers cover such subjects as portents of a Pole Shift and how this relates to the Transformation in process; how life in the Aftertime following this shift will be different from today; the self-centered or service-minded spiritual Orientation of humans as well as aliens from other worlds and how inadvertently giving the Call to aliens can put you in touch with one group or the other; how Visitations can be more easily interpreted when spiritual orientation is understood; how visitors from other Worlds are watched by the Council of Worlds, which has set Rules regulating their behavior; why we are only gradually getting acquainted with our visitors from other worlds, and what will allow the Awakening to occur faster; to what extent the Government is aware of and interacting with the alien presence; the true nature and reason for the Hybrids being developed by the Zetas to merge the best from both Zetans and Humans; why aliens can disappear and move through walls, and what both physical and spiritual Density changes will be like in the future; what the Zetas have to say about our Science theories; what the Zetas as students of human nature have concluded on what Being Human means; and straight ZetaTalk about our Myths.

Slovenia Sweden France Netherlands Taiwan China Japan Yugoslavia Germany Russia Norway Denmark Mexico Spain Portugal Hungary Ukraine Israel Italy Finland Romania Poland

Click on a flag to navigate to native language translations for that country.
A ZetaTalk book is available from Granite Publishing at (800) 247-6553. The Zeta Emissary, Nancy, has also written two scripts, both of which are available in short story form available free to the public – The Passage, in Short Story form, and Finegan Fine, in Short Story form. The Planet X video offers indepth coverage of the issues. David Dees puts it in pictures. For those who wish to prepare for the Troubled Times ahead, information is available to Help! A Pole Shift blog discusses the Earth changes. ZetaTalk provides Safe Locations information.
Love may have a blooming going into the shift, as it ought, those with great love in their hearts responding to the realization that little else matters,ZetaTalk.

Enhanced by Zemanta
Posted in Apocolyps, Judgement Day, Last Days | Tagged , , , , | Leave a comment

Last Days Predictions : Past and Future

English: Geometriae Isagoge, fol 12v, Treaty o...

English: Geometriae Isagoge, fol 12v, Treaty on the geometry of Gerbert of Aurillac, Bavaria 12th century. Schoenberg collection. Manuscript scanned at: Français : Isagoge Geometriae, fol 12v, traité de géométrie de Gerbert d’Aurillac, manuscrit bavarois du XIIe s, collection Schoenberg. Manuscrit numérisé consultable sur le site: (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

This is an incomplete list, which may never be able to satisfy particular standards for completeness. You can help by expanding it with reliably sourced entries.

This is a list of predicted dates for apocalyptic events such as the Rapture , Last Judgment , or any other event that would result in the end of humanity, civilization, the planet, or the entire universe. The list shows the dates of predictions from notable groups or individuals of when the world was, or is, forecast to end.

Past predictions



634 BCE
Many Romans feared that the city would be destroyed in the 120th year of its founding. There was a myth that 12 eagles had revealed toRomulus a mystical number representing the lifetime of Rome, and some early Romans hypothesized that each eagle represented 10 years.

389 BCE
Some Romans believed that the mystical number revealed to Romulus represented the number of days in a year, so they expected Rome to be destroyed around 365AUC (389 BCE)

66–70 CE
Simon bar Giora , Essenes
The Essene sect of Jewish ascetics saw the Jewish revolt against the Romans in 66–70 as the final end-time battle. By the authority of Simon, coins were minted declaring the redemption of Zion.

365 CE
Hilary of Poitiers
Announced that the end would happen that year.

375–400 CE
Martin of Tours
Stated that the world would end before 400, writing, “There is no doubt that the Antichrist has already been born. Firmly established already in his early years, he will, after reaching maturity, achieve supreme power.

500 CE
Hippolytus of Rome , Sextus Julius Africanus, Irenaeus
All three predicted Jesus would return in the year 500. One prediction was based on the dimensions of Noah’s ark .

793 Apr 6
Beatus of Liébana
The Spanish monk prophesied the second coming of Christ and the end of the world that day to a crowd of people.

Sextus Julius Africanus
Sextus Julius Africanus revised the date of Doomsday to 800.

Gregory of Tours
Calculated the End occurring between 799 and 806.

Declared that the world would end this year.

Good Friday coincided with theFeast of the Annunciation ; this had long been believed to be the event that would bring forth the Antichrist, and thus the end-times, within 3 years.

1000 Jan 1
Pope Sylvester II
The Millennium Apocalypse at the end of the Christian Millennium .Various Christian clerics predicted the end of the world on this date, including Pope Sylvester II . Riots occurred in Europe. Pilgrims headed east to Jerusalem.

Following the failure of the January 1, 1000 prediction, some theorists proposed that the end would occur 1000 years after Jesus’ death, instead of his birth.

John of Toledo
Predicted the end of the world during 1186, based on the alignment of many planets.

Joachim of Fiore
The Italian mystic determined that the Millennium would begin between 1200 and 1260.

Pope Innocent III
Pope Innocent III (d. 1216) predicted that the world would end666 years after the rise of Islam .

The followers of Joachim of Fiore rescheduled the End to 1290 and then 1335 when his 1260 prophecy failed.

The black plague spreading across Europe was interpreted by many as the sign of the end of times.

Jean de Roquetaillade
The Antichrist was to come in 1366 and the Millennium would begin in 1368 or 1370.

Arnaldus de Villa Nova
This Joachite wrote that the Antichrist was to come in this year.

Sandro Botticelli
Believed he was living during the Tribulation, and that theMillennium would begin in three and a half years from 1500.

1524 Feb 1
A group of astrologers in London predicted the world would end by a flood starting in London based on calculations made the previous June. 20,000 Londoners left their homes and headed for higher ground in anticipation.

1524 Feb 20
Johannes Stöffler
A planetary alignment in Pisces was seen by this astrologer as a sign of the Millennium .

Thomas Müntzer
1525 would mark the beginning of the Millennium , according to this Anabaptist. His followers were killed by cannon fire in an uneven battle with government troops. He died under torture and was beheaded.

1528 May 27
Hans Hut
Predicted the end would occur on this day.

Johannes Stöffler
Revised date from Stöffler after his 1524 prediction failed to come true.

1533 Oct 19
Michael Stifel
This mathematician calculated that the Judgement Day would begin at 8:00am on this day.

Melchior Hoffman
This Anabaptist prophet predicted Christ’s Second Coming to take place this year in Strasbourg. He claimed that 144,000 people would be saved, while the rest of the world would be consumed by fire.

1534 Apr 5
Jan Matthys
Predicted that the Apocalypse would take place on this day and only the city of Münster would be spared.

Pierre d’Ailly
Around the year 1400, this French theologian wrote that 6845 years of human history had already passed, and the end of the world would be in the 7000th year.

Michael Servetus
In his book The Restoration of Christianity, the Spanish born reformer claimed that the Devil’s reign in this world began in 325 AD, at the Council of Nicea, and will last for 1260 years, thus ending in 1585.

Predicted the end of the world this year.

Martin Luther
Predicted the end of the world would occur no later than 1600.

1624 Feb 1
The same astrologers who predicted the deluge of February 1, 1524 recalculated the date to February 1, 1624 after their first prophecy failed.

Sabbatai Zevi
Using the kabbalah this rabbi from Smyrna, Turkey, figured that the Messiah would come in this year.

Helisaeus Roeslin
This physician made a prediction that the world would end this year based on a nova that occurred in 1572.

Christopher Columbus
In his Book of Prophecies (1501), Columbus predicted that the world would end in 1656.

Fifth Monarchists
This group of radical Christians predicted the final apocalyptic battle and the destruction of the Antichrist were to take place between 1655 and 1657.

Christopher Columbus
Columbus claimed that the world was created in 5343 BCE, and would last 7000 years. Assuming no year zero, that means the end would come in 1658.

Joseph Mede
Mede claimed that the Antichrist appeared in 456, and the end would come in 1660.

Sabbatai Zevi
Following his failed prediction of 1648, Zevi recalculated the end of the earth in 1666.

Fifth Monarchists
The presence of 666 in the date, the death of 100,000 Londoners tobubonic plague , and the Great Fire of London led to superstitious fears of the end of the world from some Christians.

William Aspinwall
This Fifth Monarchist claimed theMillennium would begin by this year.

John Napier
This mathematician calculated the end of the world would be this year based on calculations from theBook of Revelation .

Pierre Jurieu
This prophet predicted that Judgement Day would occur this year.

John Mason
This Anglican priest predicted theMillennium would begin by this year.

Johann Heinrich Alsted
Predicted the Millennium would begin by this year.

Johann Jacob Zimmermann
Believed that Jesus would return and the world would end this year.

Cotton Mather
This Puritan minister predicted the world would end this year. After the prediction failed, he revised the date of the End two more times.

John Napier
After his 1688 prediction failed to come true, Napier revised his end of the world prediction to this year.

Henry Archer
In his 1642 work, The Personall Reigne of Christ Upon Earth, Archer predicted the second coming of Jesus would occur in approximately this year.

Camisard prophets predicted the end of the world would occur in either 1705, 1706 or 1708.

Cotton Mather
Revised prediction from Mather after his 1697 prediction failed to come true.

1719 Apr 5
Jacob Bernoulli
This mathematician predicted a comet would destroy the earth on this day.

Nicholas of Cusa
This Cardinal predicted the end would occur between 1700 and 1734.

1736 Oct 16
William Whiston
Whiston predicted a cometcolliding with the earth this year.

Cotton Mather
Mather’s third and final prediction for the end of the world.

Emanuel Swedenborg
Swedenborg claimed that the Last Judgement occurred in the spiritual world this year.

1780 May 19
Connecticut General Assemblymembers, New Englanders
The sky turning dark during the day was interpreted as a sign of the end times . The primary cause of the event is believed to have been a combination of smoke from forest fires, a thick fog, and cloud cover.

Pierre d’Ailly
1789 would bring the coming of the Antichrist, according to this 14th-century Cardinal.

Predicted the world would end in both 1792 and 1794.

1795 Nov 19
Nathaniel Brassey Halhed
While campaigning for Richard Brothers ‘ release, Halhead proclaimed that the world would end on this day.

Richard Brothers
This retired sailor stated theMillennium would begin between 1793 and 1795. He was eventually committed to an insane asylum.

Christopher Love
This presbyterian minister predicted the destruction of the world by earthquake in 1805, followed by an age of everlasting peace when God will be known by all.

Mary Bateman
In Leeds, England in 1806 a henbegan laying eggs on which the phrase “Christ is coming” was written. Eventually it was discovered to be a hoax. The owner,Mary Bateman , had written on the eggs in a corrosive ink so as to etch the eggs, and reinserted the eggs back into the hen’s oviduct .

1814 Dec 25
Joanna Southcott
This 64-year-old self-described prophet claimed she was pregnant with the Christ child, and that he would be born on Christmas Day, 1814. She died on the day of her prediction, and an autopsy proved she was not pregnant.

John Wesley
Wesley, the founder of theMethodist Church, foresaw theMillennium beginning this year. He wrote that Revelation 12:14 referred to the years 1058–1836, “when Christ should come”.

1843 Apr 28
1843 Dec 31
Although it was not officially endorsed by their leadership, many Millerites expected the Second Coming to occur on April 28 or at the end of 1843.

Harriet Livermore
The first of two years this preacher predicted the world would end.

1844 Mar 21
William Miller
Miller predicted Christ would return on this day.

1844 Oct 22
After Christ did not return on March 21, 1844, the Millerites then revised William Miller ‘s prediction to October 22, 1844, claiming to have miscalculated Scripture. The realization that the predictions were incorrect resulted in the Great Disappointment .

1847 Aug 7
George Rapp
Rapp, the founder of the Harmony Society , preached that Jesus would return in his lifetime, even as he lay dying on August 7, 1847.

Harriet Livermore
The second prediction of the end of the world from this preacher.

Many people[who? ] thought theCrimean War was the Battle ofArmageddon .

John Cumming
This Scottish clergyman stated it was 6000 years since Creation in 1862, and that the world would end.

John Wroe
The founder of the Christian Israelite Church calculated that theMillennium would begin this year.

Jonas Wendell
In 1870, Wendell published his views in the booklet entitled The Present Truth, or Meat in Due Season concluding that the Second Advent was sure to occur in 1873.

Charles Taze Russell
Predicted the return of Jesus to occur in 1874, and after this date reinterpreted the prediction to say that Jesus had indeed returned in invisible form.

Mother Shipton(attrib.)
This 15th-century prophet was quoted as saying “The world to an end shall come, In eighteen hundred and eighty one” in a book published in 1862. In 1873 it was revealed to be a forgery; however, this did not stop some people from expecting the end.

The founder of the Ghost Dancemovement predicted in 1889 that the Millennium would occur in 1890.

Catholic Apostolic Church
This church, founded in 1831, claimed that Jesus would return by the time the last of its 12 founding members died. The last member died in 1901.

Camille Flammarion
He predicted that the 1910 appearance of Halley’s Comet“would impregnate that atmosphere and possibly snuff out all life on the planet”, but not the planet itself. “Comet pills” were sold to protect against toxic gases.The comet indicated the Second Coming to many.

Charles Piazzi Smyth
This pyramidologist concluded from his research on the dimensions of the Great Pyramid of Giza that the Second Coming would occur between 1892 and 1911.

Charles Taze Russell
“…the battle of the great day of God Almighty… The date of the close of that “battle” is definitely marked in Scripture as October 1914. It is already in progress, its beginning dating from October, 1874.

John Chilembwe
This Baptist educator and leader of a rebellion in Nyasaland predicted the Millennium would begin this year.

International Bible Students Association
Christendom shall be cut off and glorification of the Little Flock (The Church) in the Spring of 1918 A. D.

Raymond Franz
In 1918, Christendom would go down as a system to oblivion and be succeeded by revolutionary governments. God would “destroy the churches wholesale and the church members by the millions.” Church members would “perish by the sword of war, revolution and anarchy.” The dead would lie unburied. In 1920 all earthly governments would disappear, with worldwide anarchy prevailing.

1925 Feb 13
Margaret Rowen
According to this Seventh-day Adventist the angel Gabriel appeared before her in a vision and told her that the world would end at midnight on this date.

1935 Sep
Wilbur Glenn Voliva
This evangelist announced that “the world is going to go ‘puff’ and disappear” in September 1935.

Herbert W. Armstrong
The founder of the Worldwide Church of God told members of his church that the Rapture was to take place in 1936, and that only they would saved. After the prophecy failed, he changed the date three more times.

Jehovah’s Witnesses
A prediction of the end from the Jehovah’s Witnesses, a group which branched from the Bible Student movement.

Herbert W. Armstrong
The first of three revised dates from Armstrong after his 1936 prediction failed to come true.

John Ballou Newbrough
The author of Oahspe: A New Bibleforesaw the destruction of all nations and the beginning of post-apocalyptic anarchy in this year.

1954 Dec 21
Dorothy Martin
The world was to be destroyed by terrible flooding on this date, claimed this leader of a UFO cult called Brotherhood of the Seven Rays. The fallout of the group after the prediction failed was the basis for the 1956 book When Prophecy Fails .

1959 Apr 22
Florence Houteff
The 2nd Prophet of the Branch Davidians predicted the apocalypse foretold in the Book of Revelationwould proceed on this date. The failure of the prophecy led to the split of the sect into several subsects, the most prominent led by Benjamin and Lois Roden.

1962 Feb 4
Jeane Dixon , various Indianastrologers
Jeane Dixon predicted a planetary alignment on this day was to bring destruction to the world. Mass prayer meetings were reported fromIndia .

1967 Aug 20
George Van Tassel
This day would mark the beginning of the third woe of the Apocalypse, during which the southeastern US would be destroyed by a Soviet nuclear attack, according to this UFO prophet, who claimed to have channeled an alien named Ashtar .

Jim Jones
The founder of the Peoples Templestated he had visions that a nuclear holocaust was to take place in 1967.

1969 Aug 9
George Williams
The founder of the Church of the Firstborn predicted the Second Coming of Christ would occur on this day.

Charles Manson
Manson predicted that an apocalyptic race war would occur in 1969 and ordered the Tate-LaBianca murders in an attempt to bring it about. Manson based his prediction on his interpretation of The Beatles self-titled album .

Herbert W. Armstrong
The second of three revised dates from Armstrong after his 1936 and 1943 predictions failed to come true.

1973 Jan 11–21
David Berg
Berg, the leader of Children of God , predicted that there would be a colossal doomsday event heralded by Comet Kohoutek .

Herbert W. Armstrong
Armstrong’s fourth and final false prediction.

Jehovah’s Witnesses
In 1966 Jehovah’s Witnesses published an article which stated that the fall of 1975 would be 6000 years since man’s creation. This led some Witnesses to speculate that the end would come in that year.Belief in the prediction was held only by a relatively small number of Jehovah’s Witnesses in the United States; whereas most Witnesses were unaware of the prediction.Some subsequent publications either cautioned against the prediction or stressed it was only a possibility, though some continued to affirm that 1975 would “probably” be the end. More details.

John Wroe
The founder of the Christian Israelite Church predicted this year for Armageddon to occur.

William M. Branham
This Christian minister predicted the Rapture would occur no later than 1977.

Leland Jensen
In 1978 Jensen predicted that there would be a nuclear disaster in 1980, followed by two decades of conflict, culminating in God’s Kingdom being established on earth.

Chuck Smith
The founder of Calvary Chapelpredicted the generation of 1948 would be the last generation, and that the world would end by 1981 at the latest.

1982 Apr–Jun
Tara Centers
Full-page ads in many newspapers April 24–25, 1982, stated that “The Christ is Now Here!” and that he would make himself known “within the next two months”.

1982 Mar 10
John Gribbin , Stephen Plagemann
Stated in their 1974 book TheJupiter Effect that combined gravitational forces of aligned planets would create a number of catastrophes, including a great earthquake on the San Andreas Fault .

1982 Jun 21
Benjamin Creme
Creme took out an ad in the Los Angeles stating the Second Coming would occur in June 1982 with theMaitreya announcing it on worldwide television.

Pat Robertson
In late 1976 Robertson predicted that the end of the world would come in 1982.

1984 Oct 2
Jehovah’s Witnesses
Another prediction of the end from the Jehovah’s Witnesses.

Lester Sumrall
This minister predicted the end in this year, even writing a book about it entitled I Predict 1985.

1987 Apr 29
Leland Jensen
Jensen predicted that Halley’s Comet would be pulled into Earth’s orbit on April 29, 1988, causing widespread destruction.
[48]:73, 76

1987 Aug 17
José Argüelles
Argüelles claimed that Armageddonwould take place unless 144,000 people gathered in certain places in the world in order to “resonate in harmony ” on this day.

1988 Sep 13
1988 Oct 3
Edgar C. Whisenant
Whisenant predicted in his book 88 Reasons Why the Rapture Could Be in 1988 that the Rapture of the Christian Church would occur between 11 and 13 September 1988. After his September predictions failed to come true, Whisenant revised his prediction date to October 3.

1989 Sep 30
Edgar C. Whisenant
After all his 1988 predictions failed to come true, Whisenant revised his prediction date to this day.

1990 Apr 23
Elizabeth Clare Prophet
Prophet predicted a nuclear war would start on this day, with the world ending 12 years later, leading her followers to stockpile a shelter with supplies and weapons. Later, after Prophet’s prediction did not come to pass, she was diagnosed with epilepsy and Alzheimer’s disease .

1991 Sep 9
Menachem Mendel Schneerson
This Russian-born rabbi called for the Messiah to come by the start of the Jewish New Year .

Louis Farrakhan
The leader of the Nation of Islamdeclared that the Gulf War would be the “War of Armageddon which is the final war.

1992 Sep 28
Rollen Stewart
This born-again Christian predicted the Rapture would take place on this day.

1992 Oct 28
Lee Jang Rim

(이장림 or 李長林) 

Lee, the leader of the Dami Mission church, predicted the Rapture would occur on this day.


David Berg
Berg predicted the tribulationwould start in 1989 and that the Second Coming would take place in 1993.

1994 May 2
Neal Chase
This Bahá’í sect leader predicted that New York would be destroyed by a nuclear bomb on March 23, 1994, and the Battle of Armageddon would take place 40 days later.

1994 Sep 6
1994 Sep 29
1994 Oct 2
Harold Camping
Camping predicted the Rapture would occur on September 6, 1994.When it failed to occur he revised the date to September 29 and then to October 2.

1995 Mar 31
Harold Camping
Camping’s fourth predicted date for the end. This would be Camping’s last prediction until 2011.

1996 Dec 17
Sheldan Nidle
California psychic Sheldan Nidle predicted that the world would end on this date, with the arrival of 16 million space ships and a host of angels.

1997 Mar 26
Marshall Applewhite
Applewhite, leader of the Heaven’s Gate cult , claimed that a spacecraft was trailing the Comet Hale-Boppand argued that suicide was “the only way to evacuate this Earth” so that the cult members’ souls could board the supposed craft and be taken to another “level of existence above human”. Applewhite and 38 of his followers committed mass suicide.

1997 Oct 23
James Ussher
This 17th-century Irish Archbishop predicted this date to be 6000 years since Creation, and therefore the end of the world.

1998 Mar 31
Chen Tao


Hon-Ming Chen, leader of the Taiwanese cult God’s Salvation Church, or Chen Tao — “The True Way” — claimed that God would come to Earth in a flying saucer at 10:00 am on this date. Moreover, God would have the same physical appearance as Chen himself. Chen chose to base his cult in Garland, Texas, because he thought it sounded like “God’s Land.” On March 25, God was to appear on Channel 18 on every TV set in the US.

1999 Jul
A prediction attributed to Nostradamus stating the “King of Terror” would come from the sky in “1999 and seven months” led to fears of the end.

1999 Aug 18
The Amazing Criswell
The predicted date of the end of the world, according to this psychic well known for false predictions.

1999 Sep 11
Philip Berg
Berg, dean of the worldwideKabbalah Centre , stated that on this date “a ball of fire will descend, destroying almost all of mankind, all vegetation, all forms of life.

Charles Berlitz
This linguist predicted the end would occur in this year. He did not predict how it would occur, stating it may involve nuclear devastation, asteroid impact, pole shift or other earth changes.

Hon-Ming Chen


Hon-Ming Chen’s cult God’s Salvation Church, now relocated to upstate New York, preached that a nuclear holocaust would destroy Europe and Asia sometime between October 1 and December 31, 1999.

James Gordon Lindsay
This preacher predicted the tribulation would begin before the year 2000.

Timothy Dwight IV
This President of Yale University foresaw Christ’s Millenniumstarting by 2000.

Nazim Al-Haqqani
Predicted that the Last Judgmentwould occur before the year 2000.

2000 Jan 1
Predictions of a Y2K computer bug were to crash many computers and would malfunction causing major catastrophes worldwide and that society would cease to function.
Year 2000 problem

Credonia Mwerinde ,Joseph Kibweteere
An estimated 778 followers of thisUgandan religious movement perished in a devastating fire and a series of poisonings and killings that were either a group suicide or an orchestrated mass murder by group leaders after their predictions of the apocalypse failed to come about.

Jerry Falwell
Falwell foresaw God pouring out his judgement on the world on this day.

Tim LaHaye ,Jerry B. Jenkins
These Christian authors stated the Y2K bug would trigger global economic chaos, which the Antichrist would use to rise to power. As the date approached however they changed their minds.

2000, April 6
James Harmston
The leader of the True and Living Church of Jesus Christ of Saints of the Last Days predicted the Second Coming of Christ would occur on this day.

2000 May 5
Nuwaubian Nation
This movement claimed that the planetary lineup would cause a “star holocaust,” pulling the planets toward the sun on this day.

Peter Olivi
This 13th-century theologian wrote that the Antichrist would come to power between 1300 and 1340, and the Last Judgement would take place around 2000.

Isaac Newton
Newton predicted that Christ’s Millennium would begin in the year 2000 in his book Observations upon the Prophecies of Daniel, and the Apocalypse of St. John.

Ruth Montgomery
This self-described Christian psychic predicted the Earth’s axis would shift and the Antichrist would reveal himself in this year.
[8]:156, 195

Edgar Cayce
This psychic predicted the Second Coming would occur this year.

Sun Myung Moon
The founder of the Unification Church predicted the Kingdom of Heaven would be established in this year.

Ed Dobson
This pastor predicted the end would occur in his book The End: Why Jesus Could Return by A.D. 2000.

Lester Sumrall
This minister predicted the end in his book I Predict 2000.
[6]:99, 341

Jonathan Edwards
This 18th-century preacher predicted that Christ’s thousand-year reign would begin in this year.

Tynetta Muhammad
This columnist for the Nation of Islam predicted the end would occur in this year.

Various Yoruba
Yoruba priests predicted dramatic tragedy and crisis in 2002, including coups, war, disease, and flooding.

2003 May
Nancy Lieder
Lieder originally predicted the date for the Nibiru collision as May 2003. According to her website, aliens in the Zeta Reticuli star system told her through messages via a brain implant of a planet which would enter our solar system and cause a pole shift on earth that would destroy most of humanity.

2003 Nov 29
Aum Shinrikyo
This Japanese cult predicted the world would be destroyed by a nuclear war between October 30 and November 29, 2003.

2006 Sep 12
House of Yahweh
Yisrayl Hawkins, Pastor and Overseer, The House of Yahwah, Abilene, Texas in the Feb. 2006 newsletter predicted the start of nuclear war on September 12, 2006.

2007 Apr 29
Pat Robertson
In his 1990 book The New Millennium, Robertson suggests this date as the day of Earth’s destruction.

2008 Sep 10
2010 Mar 30
A number of groups claimed that activation of the Large Hadron Collider experiment would bring about the end of the world through the production of planet-eatingmicro black holes or strangelets .Similar claims were made about 2010, March 30, when the collider reached 7 TeV , half of its maximum energy. See safety of particle collisions at the Large Hadron Collider .

Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn
This order predicted the world would end in this year.

2011 May 21
Harold Camping
Camping predicted that theRapture and devastatingearthquakes would occur on May 21, 2011 with God taking approximately 3% of the world’s population into Heaven, and that the end of the world would occur five months later on October 21.
2011 end times prediction

2011 Sep 29
Ronald Weinland
Ronald Weinland stated Jesus Christ would return on this day. He prophesied nuclear explosions in U.S. port cities by July 2008 as the blowing of the Second Trumpet of Revelation. After his prophecy failed to come true he changed the date for the return of Jesus Christ to May 27, 2012.

2011 Oct 21f
Harold Camping
When his original date failed to come about, Camping revised his prediction and said that on May 21, a “Spiritual Judgment” took place, and that both the physical Rapture and the end of the world would occur on October 21, 2011.
2011 end times prediction

2011 Aug–Oct
There were fears amongst the public that Comet Elenin travelling almost directly between Earth and the Sun would cause disturbances to the Earth’s crust, causing massive earthquakes and tidal waves. Others predicted that Elenin would collide with Earth on October 16. Scientists tried to calm fears by stating that none of these events were possible.

2012 May 27
Ronald Weinland
Ronald Weinland stated Jesus Christ would return and the world would end on this day.

2012 Jun 30
José Luis de Jesús
José Luis de Jesús predicted that the world’s governments and economies would fail on this day, and that he and his followers would undergo a transformation that would allow them to fly and walk through walls.

2012 Dec 21
The so-called Mayan apocalypse at the start of the 13th b’ak’tun . The Earth would be destroyed by anasteroid , Nibiru, or some other interplanetary object; an alien invasion ; or a supernova . Mayanistscholars stated that no extantclassic Maya accounts forecast impending doom, and that the idea that the Long Count calendar ends in 2012 misrepresented Maya history and culture,[89][90][91]Scientists from NASA, along with expert archeologists, stated that none of those events were possible.
2012 phenomenon

2012 Dec 23f
Warren Jeffs
The president of theFundamentalist Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saintspredicted from his prison cell that the world would end by December 23.

2012 Dec 31
Warren Jeffs
When the end failed to occur as he had predicted on December 23, Jeffs blamed it on his followers’ “lack of faith”, and moved the prediction to December 31.

Future predictionsf


Jeane Dixon
This alleged psychic claimed that Armageddon would take place in 2020 and Jesus would return to defeat the unholy Trinity of the Antichrist , Satanand the False prophet between 2020 and 2037. Dixon previously predicted the world would end on February 4, 1962.

F. Kenton Beshore
Beshore bases his prediction on the prior suggestion that Jesus could return in 1988, i.e., within one Biblical generation (40 years) of the founding of Israel in 1948. Beshore argues that the prediction was correct, but that the definition of a Biblical generation was incorrect and was actually 70–80 years, placing the Second Coming of Jesus between 2018 and 2028 and the Rapture by 2021 at the latest.

The Messiah Foundation International
Members propagate that the world is to end in 2026, when a comet would collide with Earth in accordance with Riaz Ahmed Gohar Shahi ‘s predictions inThe Religion of God.

Ray Kurzweil
Kurzweil predicts aTechnological Singularitycaused by the compounding effects of exponential technological progress.Kurzweil writes “There will be no distinction, post-Singularity, between human and machine....

Sir Isaac Newton
According to Sir Isaac Newton’s research of the Bible, the world will end in this year.

Said Nursî
According to abjadinterpretation of a hadith , this Sunni Muslim theologian who wrote the Risale-i Nur Collection, a body of Qur’anic commentary exceeding six thousand pages, which expected the end in 2129.

Talmud ,Orthodox Judaism
According to an opinion on the Talmud in mainstream Orthodox Judaism, the Messiah should come within 6000 years from the creation of Adam , and the world could possibly be destroyed 1000 years later. This would put the beginning of the period of desolation in the year 2240 CE and the end of the period of desolation in the year 3240 CE
Year 6000

Rashad Khalifa
According to Rashad Khalifa’s research on the Quran Code , the world will end in this year.

James Kasting
The level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere will drop, making Earth uninhabitable.

Various scientists
The end of our Sun ‘s current phase of development, after which it will swell into a red giant, either swallowing the Earth or at least completely scorching it. It is widely accepted by the scientific community that the earth will be destroyed around this time.However, as the Sun grows gradually hotter (over millions of years), the Earth may become too hot for life in only a billion years’ time.

Various scientists
The Big Rip theory predicts that the entire universe will eventually be progressively torn apart by its continual expansion . One hypothetical example of the theory places the end in approximately 22 billion years time.
Big Rip

Various scientists
The heat death of the universeis a suggested ultimate fate of the universe, in which the universe has diminished to a state of no thermodynamic free energy and therefore can no longer sustain motion or life.
Heat death of the universe


    1.  ^ Evans, Craig A. (2006). “Messianic Hopes and Messianic Figures in Late Antiquity”. Journal of Greco-Roman Christianity and Judaism 3: 9–40.
    2. ^ : a b c d e f g h Boyett, Jason (2005). Pocket Guide to the Apocalypse: The Official Field Manual for the End of the World. Relevant Media Group. ISBN 978-0-9760357-1-8 . Retrieved September 22, 2011.
    3. ^ : a b Lazarus, William P; Sullivan, Mark (2008). Comparative Religion for Dummies. John Wiley & Sons. p. 237. ISBN 978-0-470-23065-7 .
    4. ^ : a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w Richard Abanes, End-Time Visions. Four Walls Eight Windows , New York, 1998.
    5. ^ : a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Strandberg, Todd; James, Terry (June 2003). Are You Rapture Ready. New York City: Dutton.
    6. ^ : a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Richard Kyle, The Last Days are Here Again. Baker Books, Grand Rapids MI, 1998.
    7. ^ : a b c d e f g h i j k l Weber, Eugen (1999). Apocalypses. Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-7567-5314-7 .
    8. ^ : a b c d e f g h i j k l m Randi, James (1993). The Mask of Nostradamus. Prometheus Books . ISBN 978-0879758301 .
    9.  ^ “A short history of the end of the world” . The Independent .December 16, 2012. Retrieved January 8, 2013.
    10.  ^ Browne, Silvia (2008). End of Days: Predictions and Prophecies About the End of the World . Dutton Penguin. ISBN 0525950672 . Retrieved January 8, 2013. “Many authorities who had loudly proclaimed that the world would definitely end in the year 1000 explained their obvious miscalculation by “realising” they should have added Jesus’ life span to their prediction. As a result, the world would now reliably end in 1033″
    11. ^ : a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Tom McIver, The End of the World: An Annotated Bibliography. McFarlane & Co., Jefferson NC, 1999.
    12.  ^ Byrne, Joseph Patrick (2008). Encyclopedia of Pestilence, Pandemics, and Plagues, Volume 1. Greenwood Publishing Group . p. 67. ISBN 978-0313341014 . Retrieved January 8, 2013.
    13. ^ : a b Ashe, Gregory (2001). Encyclopedia of Prophecy. ABC-CLIO . p. 79. ISBN 978-1576070796 . Retrieved January 8, 2013.
    14. ^ : a b c d Stephen Jay Gould, Questioning the Millennium.Harmony Books, New York, 1997.
    15.  ^ Servetus, Michael (1553). The Restoration of Christianity. Baltasar Arnoullet.
    16.  ^ McGovern, James R. (1992). The World of Columbus . Mercer University Press . p. 17.
    17.  ^ Stackhouse, Reginald (1997). The End of the World?: A New Look at an Old Belief . Paulist Press . p. 50.
    18. ^ : a b c Schwartz, Hillel (1995), Century’s End: An orientation manual toward the Year 2000, New York: Doubleday, ISBN 0-385-47981-6
    19. ^ : a b c Daniel Cohen, Prophets of Doom. The Millbrook Press, Inc., Brookfield CT, 1999.
    20.  ^ Brady, David (1983). The Contribution of British Writers Between 1560 and 1830 to the Interpretation of Revelation 13.16-18 . Mohr Siebeck. pp. 182–183.
    21.  ^ Modeen, Marvin. Marvin Modeen. pp. 71. ISBN 978-0-615-16500-4 .
    22.  ^ Miller, Craig. “Did Emanuel Swedenborg Influence LDS Doctrine?.
    23.  ^ John F. Ross (Fall 2008), “Dark Day of 1780” , American Heritage 58(5), retrieved 2012-09-01
    24.  ^ Philips, David E. “Legendary Connecticut” . ISBN 1-880684-05-5 .
    25.  ^ “10 failed doomsday predictions”. Retrieved 2009-11-12. “History has countless examples of people who have proclaimed that the return of Jesus Christ is imminent, but perhaps there has never been a stranger messenger than a hen in the English town of Leeds in 1806. It seems that a hen began laying eggs on which the phrase “Christ is coming” was written. As news of this miracle spread, many people became convinced that doomsday was at hand — until a curious local actually watched the hen laying one of the prophetic eggs and discovered someone had hatched a hoax.
    26.  ^ Charles Mackay (1841). Extraordinary popular delusions & the madness of crowds. Random House . ISBN 0-517-88433-X .
    27. ^ : a b Stephen Skinner, Millennium Prophecies. Longmeadow Press, Stamford CT, 1994. Page 109.
    28.  ^ Morris, A. M. The Prophecies Unveiled.
    29. ^ : a b c Leon Festinger et al., When Prophecy Fails. University of Minnesota Press, 1956.
    30.  ^ Sears, Clara Endicott. Days of Delusion–A Strange Bit of History.Houghton Mifflin.
    31.  ^ Wendell, Jonas (1870). The Present Truth, or Meat in Due Season .Retrieved September 22, 2011.
    32.  ^ Neusner, Jacob (2009). World Religions in America: An Introduction. Westminster John Knox . p. 242.
    33.  ^ Stone, Jon R. (2000). Expecting Armageddon: Essential Reading in Failed Prophecy . Routledge . p. 56.
    34.  ^ Paul Boyer, When Time Shall Be No More. Harvard University Press, Cambridge MA, 1992.
    35. ^ : a b “Ten Notable Apocalypses That (Obviously) Didn’t Happen”. Smithsonian . 2009-11-12. Retrieved 2009-11-14.
    36.  ^ Zion’s Watch Tower: 23. 15 January 1892.
    37.  ^ Penton, James (1997). Apocalypse Delayed: The Story of Jehovah’s Witnesses. University of Toronto Press . p. 46. ISBN 978-0802079732 .
    38.  ^ The Finished Mystery, 1917, p. 398, 64
    39.  ^ The Finished Mystery, 1917, p. 485, 258, as cited by Raymond Franz, Crisis of Conscience, pages 206–211.
    40. ^ : a b c d e f Eva Shaw, Eve of Destruction. Lowell House, Los Angeles, 1995.
    41.  ^ Alex Heard, Apocalypse Pretty Soon. W.W. Norton & Company, New York, 1999. Pages 46–48.
    42.  ^ Waco: The Rules of Engagement , 1997 film.
    43.  ^ “Priests Leading Thousand in Prayer Meetings in India” . Edmonton Journal. 3 February 1962. Retrieved 10 September 2013.
    44.  ^ “Masses Pray As India Sees “Augur of Doom” In Planets” . Toledo Blade . 4 February 1962. Retrieved 10 September 2013.
    45. ^ : a b c William M. Alnor, UFO Cults and the New Millennium.Baker Books, Grand Rapids MI, 1998.
    46. ^ : a b c Thomas Robbins et al, Millennium, Messiahs and Mayhem. Routledge, New York, 1997.
    47.  ^ “The Closing Argument.... Retrieved September 22, 2011.
    48.  ^ David, Moses (September 8, 1973). “THE CHRISTMAS MONSTER”. Retrieved 2011-10-03. ML#269 – The Children of God
    49.  ^ “”40 DAYS!” — And Nineveh Shall Be Destroyed! (Jonah 3:4) — MO” . November 12, 1973. Retrieved 2011-10-03. ML#280 – The Children of God
    50.  ^ Life Everlasting in Freedom of the Sons of God . Watch Tower Society. 1966. pp. 29–35.
    51.  ^ The Watchtower March 15, 1980. Pages 17-18
    52.  ^ Edward T. Babinski, Leaving the Fold. Prometheus Books, Amherst NY, 1995. Page 277.
    53.  ^ Stone 2000, p. 269.
    54.  ^ End Times by Chuck Smith, 1978
    55.  ^ Arellano, Gustavo (May 7, 2011). “Remembering When Chuck Smith Predicted the End Times–And They Didn’t Happen” . OC Weekly .Retrieved March 18, 2012.
    56.  ^ Michael Grosso, Millennium Myth: Love and Death at the End of Time. Quest Books, Wheaton IL, 1995. Page 7.
    57.  ^ “Harold Camping, Ig Nobel Prize-winning mathematician, explains his mistake” . Retrieved January 8, 2013.
    58.  ^ Restall, Matthew; Solari, Amara (2011). 2012 and the End of the World: The Western Roots of the Maya Apocalypse. Rowman & Littlefield . p. 121. ISBN 978-1442206090 . Retrieved January 8, 2013.
    59.  ^ Michael Shermer, How We Believe. W.H. Freeman and Co., New York, 1999
    60.  ^ Pamela Starr Dewey. “Edgar Whisenant’s 88 Reasons” . September 30, 2011.
    61.  ^ Snow, Robert L. (2003). Deadly Cults: The Crimes of True Believers .Praeger/Greenwood. pp. 70, 79, 108, 111. ISBN 0-275-98052-9 .
    62.  ^ Cecil Adams, Triumph of the Straight Dope. Ballantine Books, NY, 1999. Pages 18–20.
    63.  ^ Watanabe, Teresa (1992-10-29). “No Doomsday Rapture for S. Korea Sect” . Los Angeles Times. Retrieved May 20, 2011. The Dami Mission was a Christian religious movement founded in South Korea by Lee Jang Rim . It received worldwide attention after Lee predicted that the rapture and end of the world would occur on 28 October 1992.
    64.  ^ Harold Camping, 1994?. Vantage Press, New York, 1992. Pages 526, 527, 531
    65.  ^ Jones, Ian. “Apocalypse … Not Just Yet” . MSN News. MSN UK News. Retrieved 27 February 2012.
    66.  ^ “Mass suicide involved sedatives, vodka and careful planning” .CNN. Retrieved September 22, 2011.
    67.  ^ Lois H. Gresh, The Hunger Games Companion: The Unauthorized Guide to the Series, Macmillan, 2009. Page 207.
    68.  ^ The New York Times. 1998-03-04.
    69.  ^ The 100 Most Entertaining Predictions about the 21st Century By William Ray, Lynette Ray. 2000. Page 89
    70.  ^ Umar Ibrahim Vadillo, The Esoteric Deviation in Islam, pgs. 450-451. Madinah Press, 2011. ISBN 062030569X
    71.  ^ Fisher, Ian (Apr 3, 2000). “Uganda Survivor Tells of Questions When World Didn’t End”. The New York Times .
    72.  ^ Twesigye, Emmanuel K. (2010). Religion, Politics and Cults in East Africa: God’s Warriors and Mary’s Saints . Peter Lang Publishing, Inc. ISBN 1433111128 . Retrieved June 24, 2013.
    73.  ^ Kellner, Mark A (January 11, 1999). “The Coming Secular Apocalypse” . Christianity Today . Retrieved October 9, 2011.
    74.  ^ Rosin, Hanna (December 27, 1999). “The Apocalypse Is Still Coming—Later”. The Washington Post . p. A01.
    75.  ^ Nick Hanna, The Millennium: A Rough Guide to the Year 2000.Rough Guides, London, 1998. Page 219.
    76.  ^ The End: Why Jesus Could Return by A.D. 2000. Ed Dobson. 1997. Zondervan.
    77.  ^ George Johnson (March 28, 1997). “Comets Breed Fear, Fascination and websites” . The New York Times. Retrieved September 30, 2011.
    78.  ^ Hawkins, Yisrayl. “The House Of Yahweh Special Newsletter” . pdf. House of Yaweh. Retrieved 30 October 2012.
    79.  ^Some fear debut of powerful atom-smasher . 30 June 2008.
    80.  ^ Ronald Weinland. “Moving Forward Rapidly, February 7, 2008” .Retrieved May 5, 2008.
    81.  ^ Ronald Weinland. “New Truth, June 18, 2008” . Retrieved May 5, 2008.
    82.  ^ Ronald Weinland. “1260 Days, December 13, 2008” . Retrieved Dec 17, 2008.
    83.  ^ Nancy Atkinson (July 20, 2011). “Worried About Comet Elenin?FAQs from Ian Musgrave” . Universe Today. Retrieved October 8, 2011.
    84.  ^ Kissick, Peter (May 26, 2012). “Eurovision 2012: a sign of the apocalypse?. Retrieved June 6, 2012.
    85.  ^ Ligaya, Armina (May 1, 2012). “‘The time is finished’: Religious sect erects billboards in Toronto ahead of the ‘transformation’”
    86.  ^ Cotroneo, Christian (May 2, 2012). “Jose Luis De Jesus Miranda: End Of The World Is Nigh (Again)” . The Huffington Post . Retrieved December 6, 2012.
    87.  ^ G. Jeffrey MacDonald (27 March 2007). “Does Maya calendar predict 2012 apocalypse?. USA Today. Retrieved 14 October 2009.
    88.  ^ David Stuart, The Order of Days: The Maya World and the Truth about 2012, Harmony Books, 2011
    89.  ^ David Webster (25 September 2007). “The Uses and Abuses of the Ancient Maya” (PDF). The Emergence of the Modern World Conference, Otzenhausen, Germany: Penn State University . Retrieved 14 October 2009.
    90.  ^ Bennett-Smith (December 31, 2012). “Warren Jeffs, Polygamist FLDS Cult Leader, May Be Directing Doomsday Plot (VIDEO)” . The Huffington Post . Retrieved January 5, 2013.
    91.  ^ Egan, Ladd (December 19, 2012). “FLDS Prepare For End Of World This Sunday” . KUTV . Retrieved January 5, 2013.
    92.  ^ Hall, John (December 31, 2012). “The end of the world…again?Authorities on alert after cult leader paedophile Warren Jeffs warns 10,000 followers to prepare for New Year’s Eve apocalypse” . The Independent .Retrieved January 5, 2013.
    93.  ^ Jeane Dixon, The Call to Glory. Bantam Books, New York, 1971. Pages 170, 172
    94.  ^ Bible Scholar Predicts New Date of Christ’s Second Coming. Troy Anderson, CharismaNews.
    95.  ^ Gohar Shahi, Riaz Ahmed (2012). The Religion of God. United States of America. p. 36. ISBN 978-1-45254-908-8 .
    96.  ^ AlGohar, Younus, 2026 , retrieved 30 Jan 2011
    97.  ^ Kurzweil, Ray. The Singularity Is Near . Viking, New York, 2005. p. 9. ISBN 0670033847
    98.  ^ France-Presse, Agençe (2007-06-18). “Newton: world will end in 2060” . Retrieved 2013-09-22.
    99.  ^ Kastamonu Appendix, 21. Letter
    100.  ^ Khalifa, Rashad. “The End of the World” .
    101. ^ : a b Carrington, D. (2000-02-21). “Date set for desert Earth” . BBC News. Retrieved 2007-03-31.
    102.  ^ Schröder, K.-P.; Smith, R.C. (2008). “Distant future of the Sun and Earth revisited”. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 386 (1): 155. arXiv :0801.4031 . Bibcode :2008MNRAS.386..155S . doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2008.13022.x . See also Palmer, J. (2008). “Hope dims that Earth will survive Sun’s death” . New Scientist . Retrieved 2008-03-24.
Enhanced by Zemanta
Posted in Apocolyps, Judgement Day, Last Days | Tagged , , , , | Leave a comment

1919 Thule Society and Hitler ‘The Strong One From Above’

English: Adolf Hitler as a soldier during the ...

English: Adolf Hitler as a soldier during the First World War (1914 – 1918) (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

What would have become of Hitler if he had not come across The Thule Society?  What would have become of his Aryan Visions if certain members of this group of influential people had not validated them? This in turn could only happen because the spiritual beliefs of the Thules led them to expect a messianic figure, a savior, referred to as ‘der Starke von Oben’ (literally: the Strong One from above). The myth that immediately formed around Hitler and was instrumental in his meteoric rise to power has its origin in the beliefs of the faithful disciples of Thule.18

Thule Society established a Political Workers’ Union, from which the DAP (Deutsche Arbeiter Partei, German Workers’ Party) arose. Individual Thule members then appeared as speakers in the DAP. As depicted in this novel, Hitler came across the small, insignificant party during a lecture in September 1919.

The Thule Society

The Thule Society is significant to the Nazi movement not just because Hitler assumed control of the DAP from it. Sebottendorff, the Grandmaster of the Thule Society, was also the owner of the Eher publishing house, which Hitler bought in 1920 and turned the newspaper produced there into the Völkischer Beobachter (Nationalist Observer), which quickly became the most important weapon in the Nazi propaganda arsenal.15 Additionally, evidence suggests that Hitler also appropriated the Thule Society’s emblem, the swastika, as well as the ‘Sieg Heil’ form of greeting.16 ‘The “heil” greeting gradually appeared in the Munich National Socialist Party in 1920. It was already in use before World War I by the Austrian nationalist movement, which had adopted it from the nationalist associations of the Altreich [old empire].


Hitler's DAP membership card Hitler’s DAP membership card begun by the Thule Society

Hitler took the party, his first supporters, the newspaper, the gestures and the swastika from the Thule Society and used these external aspects as a ‘suit of armour’ (in the words of Sebottendorff).The Grand Master of the Thule brotherhood is not exaggerating when he claims that it was this ‘suit of armour’ that helped Hitler to gain power in a period of time that would otherwise seem unnaturally short.

Driven by Hitler’s relentless propaganda, the DAP (which Hitler renamed the NSDAP) rapidly developed into a mass movement. The National Socialist movement no longer had anything in common with the conspiratorial gatherings of the Thule members. The dignified atmosphere of the Four Seasons with talks on the early Teutonic age and magic initiation rituals as outlined by Guido von List was in stark contrast to the party meetings in beer cellars, where drunkenness, raucousness and often brawls were commonplace. The mass deployments of the SA (Storm troopers) were also a world apart from the rarefied atmosphere of the luxury hotel. It is hardly surprising that the number of Thule members who joined the NSDAP was relatively low. However, some of those who did join the party later took up important positions.14

This put an end to the Thule Society’s influence over the DAP. Thule party chairman Karl Harrer resigned. However, some Thule members maintained close contact with Hitler after separation of the Thule Society and DAP, most notably the eventual Deputy Führer, Rudolf Hess, and the subsequent editor-in-chief of the most important Nazi paper, the Völkischer Beobachter (Nationalist Observer), Dietrich Eckart. It is known that Eckart soon came to see Hitler as the long-awaited ‘savior’.12 Rudolf Hess also seems to have been mesmerized by Hitler. Most Thules saw Hitler as the ‘drummer’, the herald, the prophet of who was to come. Some, like Rudolf Hess, might have seen him from the very beginning as being ‘the one’. But certainly there were also other opinions of Hitler in the Thule Society. It is very likely that the ex-DAP chairman Harrer was not the only one to reject the monopolization of the party by Hitler. It seems reasonable to assume that Hitler would have been the cause of disagreements and divisions within the Thule Society.

At any rate, after Hitler joined the DAP, the Thule Society fell quiet. It was not involved in the power struggles between the different radical right-wing groups and splinter groups in Munich at the start of the 1920s. It is not proven that Hitler ever set foot in the meeting rooms of the Thule Society in the Four Seasons Hotel. Johannes Hering’s notes on meetings of the Thule Society between 1920 and 1923 mention the presence of several Nazi leaders but never Hitler himself.13 Hitler certainly knew how to use his contacts with influential Thule members to his advantage. Their patronage and financial support was of decisive importance during the initial period of his rise. Dietrich Eckart put Hitler in contact with affluent Munich residents, and Thule sympathiser Wilhelm Frick, advisor of Munich’s Chief of Police, guarded his party protectively.

After 1926, there were no further signs of life from the Thule Society, but it reappeared with the triumph of the Nazis in 1933. Sebottendorff, who had lived abroad since 1919, re-emerged in Munich and published a book entitled Bevor Hitler kam (Before Hitler Came). He also published a magazine, the Thule Bote (Thule Herald), and organized Thule meetings at the Four Seasons Hotel again. However, the rebirth of the Thule Society was short-lived. When the second edition of Sebottendorff’s book was about to appear in 1934, it was seized by the Nazis and the author was imprisoned. His fate had been sealed when he claimed that Hitler owed his initial successes to the Thule Society. Hitler, who never mentioned the Thule Society in Mein Kampf or elsewhere, knew that it could only harm him politically if it were to emerge that such a close link existed between an obscure society of spiritualists and the start of his movement. There are contradictory accounts of Sebottendorff’s eventual fate. N. Goodrick-Clarke reports that Sebottendorff travelled through Switzerland to Turkey, where he committed suicide in 1945 after Germany’s defeat. Reginald H. Phelps quotes Sebottendorff’s publisher, H. G. Grassinger, who claims that Sebottendorff was killed by the Nazis. The Thule Society continued to exist officially until 1937 and then quietly disbanded.

Historical science may never have addressed the theories of Nazi occult authors seriously, but the flood of Nazi occult publications has created its own reality over time. In the world of these theories, National Socialism becomes a movement controlled by higher powers. Some authors claim that Hitler was used by the Thule members for their purposes. Hidden Masters of the Thule Society allegedly manipulated Hitler using telepathy and turned him into a medium. Other authors claim that Hitler was instructed in magical practices by the Thule Society. However, there is not the slightest evidence of the secret command group that was supposed to have controlled Hitler, or of Hitler’s occult leanings.17


There were ‘Teutonic’ secret societies of this kind in Austria and Germany from the mid-nineteenth century. The spiritual concepts of these factions can be grouped under the term ‘Ariosophy’, coined by the Austrian seer Guido von List.2 These Ariosophic groups were independent of each other organizationally, although many of them were more or less closely linked through personal friendships and mutual members. The notions of the Ariosophes referred to Hindu, Gnostic and hermetic ideas. Magical practises from early and medieval Teutonic times played an important part and the different groups were influenced variously by the Pythagorists, the Neoplatonics, the British mystic Madame Blavatsky, the Rosicrucian, Jakob Böhme, Paracelsus and others. As different as the mystic/magical concepts of the individual groups were, they were linked by their belief in the racist philosophy of Guido von List, which asserted the superiority of the Aryans. In their organizational structure, rituals and terminology, the Ariosophic groups resembled the Freemasons, whom they nevertheless rejected due to their supposed ‘infiltration by Jews’. As with the Freemasons, there were different levels of initiation in the Ariosophes. Armanenrunor-by-Ariosophes-1919The members were gradually introduced to the practices of ritual magic. In these rituals, light, colours, rhythms, symbols or aromas were used to focus mental powers and channel them in a specific direction. The Ariosophes believed this would enable them to bring about changes on the material plane.3

The Thule Society was the Bavarian branch of the Ariosophic Germanenorden (Teutonic Order), an association of occultists formed in Leipzig in 1912 by the esoteric and anti-Semite Theodor Fritsch. In 1916, after a meeting with Fritsch, Baron Rudolf von Sebottendorff assumed leadership of the Bavarian arm, calling it the Thule Society.5 Sebottendorff was an adventurer and occultist, born in Hoyerswerda, Saxony, in 1875 under the name Ernst Rudolf Glauer. In his autobiography Der Talisman des Rosenkreuzers (The Talisman of the Rosicrucian), Sebottenorff discusses his life, which N. Goodrick-Clarke has researched in more detail.6 Glauer-Sebottendorff had worked on ships, travelling to New York, Sydney, Cairo and Constantinople. He eventually settled in Turkey and there first became involved with occultism. He established contact with the Mevlevi sect of the Whirling Dervishes and was acquainted with the teaching of the Sufis. In his studies, Glauer-Sebottendorff came to the conclusion that Islamic mysticism had Aryan roots. This opinion linked him with Guido von List. The forefather of Ariosophy proclaimed that not just Islam but all religious systems were derived from one single original religion, the religion of the Aryans. In 1910, Glauer-Sebottendorff founded a mystic lodge in Constantinople. One year later, he was adopted by Baron Heinrich von Sebottendorff, and so became a baron himself. He returned to Germany in 1913 and married the daughter of a prosperous Berlin businessman. Three years later, he assumed leadership of the Thule Society in Munich.

Women were scarcely represented in the Thule Society, the higher levels of initiation being reserved exclusively for men. Those wishing to join had to complete a questionnaire and submit a photograph, which was examined for purity of race. The following ‘blood declaration’ also had to be filed: ‘The undersigned assures to the best of his knowledge and conscience that no Jewish or coloured blood flows through his veins or those of this wife and that there are no family members of coloured race among his forefathers.’7 Unlike most other Ariosophic groups, the Thule Society was not content merely with influencing material circumstances through visualizations and ritual magic: the group was also politically active. When the Bavarian King was deposed and the communists took power in November 1918, the opulent meeting place of the Thule Society, the luxury Four Seasons Hotel, became a center of counter-revolutionary activities.8 The Thule Society also set up a fighting division that took an active part in the power struggle during the revolution in Munich.9 In April 1919, it enlisted volunteers, who were smuggled by train in their hundreds to Eichstätt to participate in the attack against the communist regime from there.10 After the overthrow of the communist government in May 1919, the Thule Society shifted its political activities to the field of propaganda. In October 1918, when German defeat in the First World War was imminent, the Thule Society established a Political Workers’ Union, from which the DAP (Deutsche Arbeiter Partei, German Workers’ Party) arose. Individual Thule members then appeared as speakers in the DAP. As depicted in this novel, Hitler came across the small, insignificant party during a lecture in September 1919. Soon afterwards, he became the fifty-fifth member of the party. Hitler must have quickly realised who was behind the DAP, because he promptly demanded an end to the influence of the Thule Society over the party. Two months after Hitler joined he set down points of order that stated: ‘Excludes all forms of dictation [for the party committee] by a superior or lateral government, whether it be a circle or lodge, once and for all’.11

Source: The Young Hitler

1 Karl H. von Wiegand, ‘Hitler Foresees His End’, Cosmopolitan, New York, April 1939, p.152 quoted from: R. Binion, op. cit.
2 See: Appendix 34, Guido von List
3 This information is contained, for example, in: N. Goodrick-Clarke, The Occult Roots of Nazism, New York 1985, p.17ff. See also: D. Rose, op. cit., p.19ff
4See also: P.G.J. Pulzer, Die Entstehung des politischen Antisemitismus in Deutschland und Österreich 1867–1914, Gütersloh, 1966. Pulzer described Fritsch (1852–1934) as the ‘most important anti-Semite before Hitler’. Fritsch’sHandbuch der Judenfrage was reissued dozens of times
5 R. Sebottendorff, Bevor Hitler kam, Munich 1933, pp.53, 62. According to Rudolf von Sebottendorff, the Thule Society had 250 members in Munich and 1,500 throughout Bavaria in November 1918
6 N. Goodrick-Clarke, op. cit., p.135ff
7 R. Sebottendorff, op. cit., p.42
8 The Thule Society also invited other nationalistic groups to conspiratorial meetings at the Four Seasons. These included the Alldeutschen (All-Germans); Rohmeder’s Schulverein (School Association); and the Hammerbund (Hammer League). See also: R. Sebottendorff, op. cit., p.62
9 The Thule Battle League had a branch on the outskirts of Munich in Eching and maintained contact with the legal Bavarian government in Bamberg.Members of the League carried out acts of sabotage against Munich’s Red Army and planned to kidnap the communist state leader, Kurt Eisner. It appears that there was also a connection between the Thule Society and Eisner’s murderer, Count Arco-Valley. See also: H. J. Kuron, Freikorps and Bund Oberland(Dissertation, Erlangen. n.d. [1960]), pp.16–19; R. Sebottendorff, op. cit., pp.106–13; D. Rose, op. cit., pp.39, 43; H. Gilbhart, op. cit., p.92
10 See also: H. Gilbhart, op. cit.; D. Rose, op. cit.. On the 19th of April 1919, Sebottendortff was authorized by Bamberg to set up a freecorps. Consequently he opened a recruitment office in the Hotel Deutscher Kaiser in Nuremberg (R.Sebottendorff, op. cit., pp.125–34.) Sebottendorff’s account is confirmed by the Nuremberg Thule member Franz Müller (‘Erfahrungen eines alten Vorkämpfers’, HA Koblenz No. 1249, see: R. Phelps, ‘Before Hitler Came’, Journal of Modern History, 1963, p.259.) Sebottendorff’s ‘Oberland’ freecorps then took part in the conquest of Munich. The freecorps fought along the Ruhr in 1920 and against Poland in Oberschlesien in 1921. The successor, Bund Oberland, played an important part in Hitler’s coup in 1923
11 Draft of standing orders for the DAP from December 1919, BA Koblenz NS2627 quoted from: A. Joachimsthaler, op. cit., Munich 2000, p.265
12 See: Appendix 35, The Expected Saviour
13 Johannes Hering, ‘Beiträge zur Geschichte der Thulegesellschaft’, manuscript from 21 June 1939, HA Koblenz, NS 26/865, quoted from: N. Goodrick-Clarke, op. cit., p.201
14 See: Appedix 41, Prominent Thule Members
15 SSee: Appendix 42, Völkischer Beobachter
16 See: Appendix 39, The Swastika. See also: F. Willing, op. cit., p.87: ‘The “heil” greeting gradually appeared in the Munich National Socialist Party in 1920. It was already in use before World War I by the Austrian nationalist movement, which had adopted it from the nationalist associations of theAltreich [old empire].’; H.Bühmann, ‘Der Hitlerkult’, in K. Heller, J. Plamper (eds.), Personenkulte im Stalinismus; Göttingen 2004, p.123: ‘The “Heil” greeting evidently comes from the Turner [gymnast] movement, and was therefore part of traditional German usage.
17 See: Appendix 17, Hitler and the Occult
18 See: Appendix 35, The Expected Saviour
Enhanced by Zemanta
Posted in Hitler, Mystisim, Mystisism, Research | Tagged , , , , , , | 1 Comment

1913 US Government’s Explanation of ‘The Federal Reserve’ Origin and Mission

In 1935, Cret designed the Seal of the Board o...

In 1935, Cret designed the Seal of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)


Understanding the Great Depression

In this video, Chairman Bernanke describes the 1920s as the economic precursor to the Great Depression. Further, he describes the economic and financial conditions that characterized the Great Depression and explores its primary causes.

The Federal Reserve’s Response to the Great Depression

In this video, Chairman Bernanke discusses the Federal Reserve’s response to the Great Depression, evaluating the strengths and weaknesses of the Fed’s attempts to mitigate the economic and financial crises that characterized and prolonged the Great Depression. He addresses policies put in place by the Roosevelt Administration which eased the problems that exacerbated and prolonged the Great Depression. Finally, he discusses the policy lessons learned from the Great Depression.


Federal Reserve Independence and Economic Policy

In this video, Chairman Bernanke discusses the evolving role of the Fed as the United States emerged from the Great Depression and World War II. The Fed gained new independence in determining interest rates at this time and followed a monetary policy that sought to keep both inflation and economic growth reasonably stable.

The Great Inflation and Volcker Disinflation

In this video, Chairman Bernanke examines the Fed’s approach to monetary policy, especially in terms of reacting to changing rates of inflation. He discusses the successes and failures of monetary policy from the 1960s through the 1980s and examines the lessons learned from this era for fighting inflation.



The Great Moderation

In this video, Chairman Bernanke examines how the Federal Reserve’s economic policies resulted in a period of steady economic growth for the United States from the mid-1980s through 2007.



The Role of the Federal Reserve in the U.S. Economy

In this video, Chairman Bernanke explains the basic idea of the central bank and the role it plays in fostering a stable economy. He describes the central bank’s tools for maintaining a stable financial system and a healthy economy.

The Housing Bubble of the Early 2000s

In this video, Chairman Bernanke examines the housing bubble, which reached its peak in 2006–07. He analyzes the causes of the housing bubble as well as its role as a trigger for the recent financial crisis.

The Financial Crisis

In this video, Chairman Bernanke explains how the triggers of the financial crisis, including the decline in the housing market and unwise mortgage practices, and systemic vulnerabilities, such as the activities of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac, caused a financial panic, subjecting the major financial firms in the United States to enormous financial pressure and in some cases, failure.

The Federal Reserve’s Response to the Financial Crisis

In this video, Chairman Bernanke describes the global and Federal Reserve responses to the financial crisis. He focuses on the temporary expansion of the Fed’s “lender-of–last-resort” role to nonbanking financial institutions and its impact. Finally, he examines several key financial institutions, including Lehman Brothers, American International Group, Inc. (AIG), and Bear Stearns; discusses the challenges of dealing with these institutions; and reviews the lessons learned from how the Fed attempted to resolve these institutions’ difficulties.



Fed’s Monetary Policy Response to the Recession

In this video, Chairman Bernanke explains what the Federal Reserve did to contain the financial crisis and how it used monetary policy to help stabilize the economy and promote recovery.

The Post-Crisis Economic Recovery

In this video, Chairman Bernanke explains how the housing crisis and financial and credit markets have affected the economic recovery, and discusses the future of the economy.

Post-Crisis Regulatory Changes and Effects of the Crisis on Central Bank Practice

In this video, Chairman Bernanke discusses some of the post-crisis regulatory changes and the effects of the crisis on central bank practice.

  • Introduction
  • Lecture
  • Video Clip 1: A central bank and its mission
  • Video Clip 2: The policy tools of central banks
  • Video Clip 3: Origins of central banking
  • Video Clip 4: Financial panics
  • Video Clip 5: Lender of last resort
  • Video Clip 6: Financial stability prior to the Fed
  • Video Clip 7: The gold standard
  • Video Clip 8: Establishment of the Federal Reserve
  • Video Clip 9: The Great Depression
  • Video Clip 10: Policy during the Great Depression
  • Video Clip 11: President Roosevelt’s economic policies
  • Student Q&A

    This ends the Government’s explanation for the existence of the Federal Reserve. Please note that the first Government Entity established in Tunisia after Kaddafi was deposed was a Central Bank.  

    Enhanced by Zemanta
  • Posted in Central Bank, Communism, Federal Reserve, Government, Reform, socialism | Tagged , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

    1855 La Reunion Considerant’s Dallas Texas Socialist Utopia

    Victor Considerant

    Victor Considerant (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

    La Réunion socialist utopia community formed in 1855 by French ,Belgian , and Swiss colonists near the forks of the Trinity River in Texas , USA .The Reunion Tower in downtown Dallas is about three miles east of the colony site. The founders of the community were inspired by the utopia thought of the French philosopher François Marie Charles Fourier . Followers of Fourier established 29 similar colonies in various parts of the United States during the 19th century.In 1860 the declining colony was incorporated into the expanding city of Dallas.[1] Fourier’s ‘Four Movements’ had a pivotal influence of Victor Considerant’s desire to set up this utopia.
    Charles Fourier Cambridge University Press "Theory of the Four Movements    pg 24 French 1808 original writing.

    Charles Fourier Cambridge University Press “Theory of the Four Movements pg 24 French 1808 original writing.

    Brief history
    The founders of La Réunion intended it to become a socialist utopian colony; they were inspired by the writings of the French philosopher Charles Fourier , who advocated communal production and distribution for communal profit.Unlike other early communist systems, both men and women could vote and individuals could own private property.

    • Watch the attached video to see a socialist revisionist of this dismal redistribution of wealth and control of and individual’s destiny.  I placed it here because it has the best video of the early history before it veers of into liberal arts.
    • 69 of the Avant Garde of the Icarians , socialist utopians, arrived in Denton, Texas (approx.. 50mi North of Dallas) in 1948.  Icarians have roots leading back to the Marquis de Lafayette
    • Socialists appear to be notorious failures with anything related to farming and choosing farming lands.
    Founder of La Réunion

    La Réunion was founded in Texas by Victor Prosper Considerant , a member of the Fourier movement in Lyon , France . He had been forced into exile after staging protests against Napoléon III’s military expedition to Rome. After personally inspecting an area near the three forks of the Trinity River in Texas , he returned to Europe where he formed a group of future settlers. (The site of the community was in the present-day Reunion District of Dallas, about three miles west of the Reunion Tower.)

    Land purchase
    Map of the Trinity River and associated watershed

    Map of the Trinity River and associated watershed (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

    Map of the Trinity River and associated watershed (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

    Advance agent François Cantagrel was sent ahead to buy 2 acres (8,100 m2) at $700 per acre to establish the location of colony. As the land was not good for farming, the property was a poor choice for the intended colony, although most of the would-be colonists were not farmers. Approximately 200 colonists arrived by ship near present-day Houston . They walked overland to the site of their new colony approximately 250 miles (400 km) northward, with their possessions hauled by ox carts, and arrived on April 22, 1855.

    Original population

    The general area surrounding the three forks of the Trinity River had about 400 inhabitants at the time. The addition of the French colonists nearly doubled the population. The new arrivals spoke a different language from the settlers, believed in a different system of government and Catholic faith, and brought with them skills that the existing farmers did not possess. The watchmaking, weaving, brewing and storekeeping skills of the new colonists were ill-suited to the establishment of a colony, because they lacked the ability to produce food for themselves.

    Texas weather

    Although the colonists cultivated wheat and vegetables, they did not produce enough for their needs or in time; their biggest handicap was the uncooperative weather of Texas. A blizzard in May 1856 destroyed the colony’s crops and turned the Trinity River into a sheet of ice. That summer the Texas heat created drought conditions, and what was left of the crops became a feast for an invasion of grasshoppers.

    Decline of La Réunion

    Although more than 350 European colonists eventually made La Réunion their home, the experiment was already beginning to fail as the population began to leave. Some returned to Europe while others moved out of the area. In 1860 the nearby emerging town of Dallas incorporated La Réunion into its land area; the remaining skilled colonists were absorbed into its specialized workers.

    Few reminders remain

    Eventually what had been cultivated as farmland at La Réunion was discovered to be covering large deposits of limestone; it was gradually quarried and transported to build the growing state of Texas .

    The cemetery on the old colony site still serves as the final resting place for some of the colonists. It is maintained by the City of Dallas and is located just off Fish Trap Road between Singleton Blvd and the Trinity River in west Dallas.The La Réunion Cemetery received a historic marker in 1974.[2]


             La Réunion Cemetery 32°47′0″N 96°51′37″W

    The Daughters of the American Revolution placed a small memorial to the colony at a nearby golf course. The La Réunion Dallas historical site received a historic marker on April 10, 1924.[3]

    The last La Réunion house collapsed in the 1930s, and its ruins are now obscured by thick vegetation. Reunion Tower , a Dallas landmark , was named after the colony and is located a few miles east of where La Réunion once existed.


    Shortly before the demise of La Réunion, botanist and pharmacist Jacob Bollarrived and taught Julien Reverchon . The latter man became celebrated in his own right as a professor of botany at Baylor University College of Medicine and Pharmacy in Dallas. The first brewery and butcher shops in Dallas were established by former colonists from La Réunion; Maxime Guillot opened a carriage factory that operated for 50 years, helping to make Dallas the world center of the carriage and harness-making industries by 1900.

    1. Davidson, Rondel V. “La Réunion” . TSHA Handbook of Texas Online.Retrieved January 6, 2013.
    2. La Réunion Cemetery: 3300 block of Fish Trap Road; in West Dallas, Housing Park: Texas marker #6756 | [1]
    3. La Réunion – Dallas: Stevens Park Golf Course, Tee #6; on Hampton Road at intersection with Old Orchard: Texas marker #6755 | [2]
    • Santerre, George H. White Cliffs of Dallas. The Book Craft, Dallas, 1955.Dallas Public Library Reference: R.976.428 S234W. The Story of La Reunion, the Old French Colony.
    • Considerant, Victor. Au Texas. New York, 1855. Dallas Public Library Reference: REF R334.683 C755A 1975. In French.
    Enhanced by Zemanta
    Posted in Art, Government, socialism, utopia | Tagged , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

    Help the National Museums of Scotland Solve A 3000 Piece Puzzle from 800 AD In 3-D

    Oct. 9, 2013 3:26pm Liz Klimas

    Putting together a historic stone broken into about 3,000 fragments is a daunting task, which is why the National Museums Scotland is hoping online gamers might be able to help them.

    Cadboll stone

    A portion of the Hilton of Cadboll Stone is intact but the rest, which was recently discovered, is in more than 3,000 pieces. A museum had a hospital use a CT scanner take 3-D images of the pieces in the hopes that software and crowd sourcing could virtually piece them back together. (Image source: Wikimedia)

    The Hilton of Cadboll Stone, which was carved around 800 AD after a Scottish group known as the Picts converted to Christianity, has suffered multiple accidents, according to the National Museums Scotland :

    At some point the stone was toppled and broken, possibly in a storm in 1674, and the bottom portion lost. In 1676 the original carving of the Christian cross was chipped off and replaced with an inscription commemorating a local man, Alexander Duff, and his three wives.

    From the 17th to the mid 19th centuries, the stone remained by the chapel at Hilton of Cadboll. For much of this time it lay with the original Pictish carving facing down.

    In the 1860s the MacLeods of Cadboll took it to Invergordon Castle and installed it as a garden ornament.

    The base of the stone was recently found along with 3,000 broken pieces at a chapel and will be displayed in a new exhibit. But officials are also taking CT scans of the pieces and uploading them into a software program, hoping the public can help them put it together again — digitally.

    “We need techy-savvy people who have the mindset and understanding of how to work with 3D objects which are a form of virtual reality in space. It’s that puzzle-solving mind we need,” Mhairi Maxwell with NMS told the Scotsman .

    “Archaeologists are always working with fragments, but it is extremely rare to find over 3,000 fragments at the base where the stone originally stood. The fragments range in size from small pieces of 3cm diameter to big chunks which are 15cm to 20cm in length,” she continued.

    Take a look at this simulation showing how the puzzle-solving software works:

    Hamish Torrie, who works with the  Glenmorangie Company’s whisky distillery that uses some of the stone as a logo, told the Scotsman “it’s great that modern technology can be used to piece together the mysteries of the past.”

    “The digital aspect means that people can go online and help solve this ancient puzzle,” Torrie said.


    The project will be available for puzzle-solvers to try starting October 25.

    Enhanced by Zemanta
    Posted in Art, Christianiy, Recreation, Reformation | Tagged , , , , , , | Leave a comment